After the war, as part of the reorganization of state security agencies, the military apparatus was abolished. As a result, the structure of the Soviet state security agencies was greatly simplified.
By the 7 March 1953 joint decision of the plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR Supreme Soviet, the USSR Ministry of State Security and the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs were merged into one body - the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs.
However, a decree was issued on 13 March 1954, establishing the State Security Committee (KGB) under the USSR Council of Ministers. It included the head offices and independent departments of the former Ministry of State Security, which existed until March 1953. According to the relevant decree of the Boards of the Supreme Soviets of the allied and autonomous republics, State Security Committees were established under the Council of Ministers of these republics, and relevant departments and divisions of the State Security Committee were established in territories and regions. In cities and districts, authorized offices of the State Security Committee were established instead of former city departments and units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Taking into account the changing crime situation in the country, state security agencies were dissolved in a number of regions. In 1957, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Soviet government decided to transfer the General Directorate of the Border Troops from the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs to the State Security Committee under the USSR Council of Ministers in order to strengthen state borders.
By the 2 March 1959 decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, the Statute of the State Security Committee under the USSR Council of Ministers and its local bodies was adopted. In accordance with this Statute, the board of the USSR KGB was established to ensure the implementation of the decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, as well as to look into the organization of the work of state security bodies and their activities. The board included the chairman of the committee, his deputies, senior officials of the committee and its local bodies.
One of the main tasks of the KGB was to restore trust in the security forces, which was lost in 1920-1950. On 30 June 1956, a resolution was passed "On the elimination of the cult of personality and its consequences". With this decision, a legal and political assessment was made of the crimes committed by Stalinism from the 1920s to the 1950s, and the idol of Stalin was broken. The forces that cooperated with him and ruled the totalitarian regime were arrested. Y. D. Sumbatov-Topurudze, Kh. Grigoryan, T. Borshov, S. Yemelyanov, A. Atakishiyev, R. Markaryan were convicted by the Military Board of the Supreme Court of the USSR in Baku and received the punishment they deserved for their crimes. Although the faults and shortcomings of the system, the regime and the empire itself were not completely eliminated, the first steps were taken in this direction.
In order to eliminate the negative consequences of the past violations of socialist law in the activities of security agencies in Azerbaijan and other republics, the cases of people convicted of crimes against the state, served their sentences in various camps and prisons of the USSR, as well as people in exile were reconsidered and some of them were acquitted. The attitude towards prisoners of war and legionnaires changed dramatically. Thousands of innocent people convicted by special troikas and the judiciary were acquitted, many had their sentences commuted or reviewed.
Like in all parts of the USSR, the struggle for the protection of national values, continuation of ancestral traditions, protection of territorial integrity, religion and language, etc. relatively expanded in Azerbaijan. For example, the poet Mahammad Bagirzadeh Biriya wrote a letter to the heads of government of Azerbaijan in 1957, demanding that they close Marxist-Leninist schools, remove statues of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin, abandon the Cyrillic alphabet and return to the old alphabet, expel the Armenians, enemies of the Islamic world, from Azerbaijan, open borders, repatriate all Muslims sentenced to exile, etc.